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Role of FDG-PET/CT in Assessing the Correlation Between Blood Pressure and Myocardial Metabolic Uptake.

ter, 02/18/2020 - 19:55
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Role of FDG-PET/CT in Assessing the Correlation Between Blood Pressure and Myocardial Metabolic Uptake.

Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol. 2020;8(1):36-45

Authors: Rojulpote C, Mehdizadeh Seraj S, Zirakchian Zadeh M, Yadav D, Raynor WY, Kothekar E, Al-Zaghal A, Werner TJ, Gerke O, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Alavi A

Abstract
Objectives: We aimed to assess the association between blood pressure and LV myocardial uptake of FDG, hypothesizing that subjects with raised blood pressure would have higher FDG uptake.
Methods: We analyzed 86 healthy controls who underwent PET/CT imaging 180 minutes following FDG (4 MBq/Kg) administration. LV myocardial analysis was performed on axial sections using standard operator guided computer software (OsiriX MD). The average LV myocardial SUVmean (MSUVmean) was calculated for each subject. Subjects were assessed according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines for high blood pressure in adults. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was calculated for each patient. Regression models were employed for statistical analysis.
Results: The association of MSUVmean was more pronounced with DP (r=0.32, p=0.003) than SP (r=0.28, p=0.010); MABP was comparable (r=0.33, p=0.002). Correlations of MSUVmean with categorized BPs were: normal SP (r=0.27, p=0.010), elevated SP (r=0.28, p=0.009), stage 1 SP (r=0.27, p=0.010), stage 2 SP (r=0.28, p=0.008); normal DP (r=0.33, p=0.001), stage 1 DP (r=0.34, p=0.001), stage 2 DP (r=0.35, p=0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated DP (p=0.006), MABP (p=0.007), and SP (0.026).
Conclusion: LV myocardial FDG uptake was higher in subjects with elevated blood pressure and correlated positively with SBP and in particular DBP and MABP.

PMID: 32064281 [PubMed]

Quantitative three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of sinus tympani volume in temporal bones with petrous apex pneumatization.

sab, 02/15/2020 - 10:26
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Quantitative three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of sinus tympani volume in temporal bones with petrous apex pneumatization.

Auris Nasus Larynx. 2020 Feb 10;:

Authors: Bekci T, Hizli O, Ozturk M, Yildirim G

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sinus tympani volume and petrous apex pneumatization in this retrospective-archival temporal bone computed tomography study.
METHODS: We included 46 temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex from 26 patients and 52 temporal bones without petrous apex pneumatization from 26 other patients. Using OsiriX software for MacOS (version 3.8.1, Pixmeo), we measured the volumes from three-dimensional sinus tympani models and compared the sinus tympani volumes and depths between the temporal bones with and without pneumatized petrous apex.
RESULTS: Among 150 patients totally reviewed, 26 (17.3%) had petrous apex pneumatization. The median sinus tympani volume was 16.05 (5.6-59.7) mm3 in temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex and 8.7 (1.76-59.7) mm3in temporal bones without. The sinus tympani volume was significantly greater in temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex compared to those without (p < 0.001). Additionally, temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex had a significantly deeper sinus tympani [median depth = 2.17 (0-3.04) mm] compared to the temporal bones without [median depth = 1.69 (0-3.73) mm] (p = 0.045). We found that petrous apex pneumatization was associated with deeper and larger sinus tympani.
CONCLUSION: Patients with pneumatized petrous apex had a greater sinus tympani volume associated with the increased risk of residual cholesteatoma.

PMID: 32057525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Is basilar invagination related with stenosis of the hypoglossal nerve canal?

sab, 02/08/2020 - 09:14
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Is basilar invagination related with stenosis of the hypoglossal nerve canal?

World Neurosurg. 2020 Feb 04;:

Authors: Vasconcelos BB, Nascimento JJC, Valença MM, Silva-Neto EJ, Diniz PRB, Araújo-Neto SA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between basilar invagination (BI) and stenosis in the hypoglossal canal (HC).
METHODS: A case-control study with magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the head from a local database was performed. The study used MRI of 31 participants with BI (type B) and 36 controls, both groups over 18 years of age and without sex distinction. The internal (ID) and external (ED) diameters of the HC were measured on the coronal plane using the Osirix®. We used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (with Lilliefors adjustment) to evaluate the normality of the variables, Levine test to verify the homogeneity of the variances, and Student's t-test to verify differences between groups. All analyzes were within the 95% confidence interval using the software SPSS (version 20).
RESULTS: Control group presented right and left ED values ​​of 4.7 ± 0.8 mm and 4.6 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, while the right and left ID showed 4.4 ± 0.9 mm and 4.3 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. The group with BI showed right and left ED values ​​of 3.3 ± 0.9 mm and 3.1 ± 0.9 mm, and the right and left ID had values of 2.8 ± 0.7 mm and 2.7 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. Both ED and ID were smaller in the group with BI (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Patients with BI of type B presented the narrowing of HC when compared to control participants.

PMID: 32032789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Clinical impact of skeletal muscle area in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors.

sex, 02/07/2020 - 09:09
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Clinical impact of skeletal muscle area in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 05;:

Authors: Takada K, Yoneshima Y, Tanaka K, Okamoto I, Shimokawa M, Wakasu S, Takamori S, Toyokawa G, Oba T, Osoegawa A, Tagawa T, Oda Y, Nakanishi Y, Mori M

Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of skeletal muscle area (SMA) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors.
METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on data of 103 patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors. The SMA was measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebral (L3) on computed tomography images using OsiriX software (32-bit, version 5.8; OsiriX, Geneva, Switzerland). The L3 muscle index (cm2/m2) was defined as the SMA (cm2) at the L3 level divided by the height (m) squared.
RESULTS: L3 muscle index Low was an independent predictor of both progression-free (P = 0.0399) and overall survival (P = 0.0155). Moreover, the disease control rate was significantly lower in the L3 muscle index Low group (49.0% [25/51]) than in the L3 muscle index High group (73.1% [38/52]; P = 0.0117). However, there was no significant difference between the response rates of the L3 muscle index Low group (21.6% [11/51]) and L3 muscle index High group (32.7% [17/52]; P = 0.2031).
CONCLUSIONS: L3 muscle index Low is an independent predictor of worse outcomes in NSCLC patients treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors.

PMID: 32025867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Determining the Accuracy of the Mandibular Canal Region in 3D Biomodels Fabricated from CBCT Scanned Data: A Cadaveric Study.

qua, 02/05/2020 - 17:54
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Determining the Accuracy of the Mandibular Canal Region in 3D Biomodels Fabricated from CBCT Scanned Data: A Cadaveric Study.

Curr Med Imaging Rev. 2019;15(7):645-653

Authors: Abd Fattah SYAS, Hariri F, Nambiar P, Abu Bakar Z, Abdul Rahman ZA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To validate the accuracy of the mandibular canal region in 3D biomodel produced by using data obtained from Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) of cadaveric mandibles.
METHODS: Six hemi-mandible samples were scanned using the i-CAT CBCT system. The scanned data was transferred to the OsiriX software for measurement protocol and subsequently into Mimics software to fabricate customized cutting jigs and 3D biomodels based on rapid prototyping technology. The hemi-mandibles were segmented into 5 dentoalveolar blocks using the customized jigs. Digital calliper was used to measure six distances surrounding the mandibular canal on each section. The same distances were measured on the corresponding cross-sectional OsiriX images and the 3D biomodels of each dentoalveolar block.
RESULTS: Statistically no significant difference was found when measurements from OsiriX images and 3D biomodels were compared to the "gold standard" -direct digital calliper measurement of the cadaveric dentoalveolar blocks. Moreover, the mean value difference of the various measurements between the different study components was also minimal.
CONCLUSION: Various distances surrounding the mandibular canal from 3D biomodels produced from the CBCT scanned data was similar to that of direct digital calliper measurements of the cadaveric specimens.

PMID: 32008512 [PubMed - in process]

Sex estimation in the cranium and mandible: a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) study using anthropometric and geometric morphometry methods.

sab, 01/04/2020 - 10:33
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Sex estimation in the cranium and mandible: a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) study using anthropometric and geometric morphometry methods.

Int J Legal Med. 2020 Jan 02;:

Authors: Gillet C, Costa-Mendes L, Rérolle C, Telmon N, Maret D, Savall F

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the respective contribution of the skull and mandible to sex estimation in an entire cranium using metric and geometric morphometric methods and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) analysis.
MATERIALS: The study sample comprised 120 individuals aged 23 to 84 years and divided into three groups (whole sample and over or under 40 years of age).
METHODS: Forty-eight osteometric landmarks were positioned using Osirix®, 34 for the cranium and 14 for the mandible. The data were analyzed using univariate analyses and logistic regression using backward stepwise selection with cross-validation of the classification results. Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) was used, and Goodall's F test and Mahalanobis D2 matrices allowed an assessment of statistical significance.
RESULTS: The classification accuracy of cranium models ranged from 87% to 88.3%, and from 68% to 81.4% for the mandibular models. With geometric morphometry, accuracy was of 94-100% for the cranium and 84.2% for the mandible.
DISCUSSION: We conclude that the mandible had a higher accuracy rate for individuals over 40 years than individuals under 40 years of age, although the accuracy of geometric morphometry did not differ significantly between the age groups. The cranium, however, presented greater predictability for all the parameters assessed.

PMID: 31897666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Does 3D volumetric analysis predict the reach of endoscopically harvested buccal fat pad flap.

sex, 12/27/2019 - 09:23
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Does 3D volumetric analysis predict the reach of endoscopically harvested buccal fat pad flap.

Laryngoscope. 2019 Dec 26;:

Authors: Subramaniam S, Gomez M, Maza G, Prevedello DM, Carrau RL

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the volume of buccal fat, ascertained by computed tomography (CT) scanning, would correspond to surface area and reach (length and width) of the flap intraoperatively to aid in the reconstruction of selected skull base defects.
METHODS: Cadaveric study of five specimens, 10 sides. Methods CT imaging and evaluation using the Osirix 9 software (Pixmeo; Bernex, Switzerland). of cadaveric heads to calculate the volume of the buccal fat bilaterally. The flap was then harvested endoscopically. Measurements were taken. Two heads were also dissected via a transfacial approach.
RESULTS: The volume of the buccal fat pad (BFP) as well as the maximum length and width of the endoscopically harvested flap were documented. There was a positive correlation shown between the calculated volume of the BFP based on CT imaging and the dissected length and width of the flap (Pearson correlation, r = 0.83 and r = 0.80, respectively). The transfacial dissection demonstrated the lobes of the BFP well, showing that most of the endoscopic mobilization of the BFP was limited to the posterior lobe, in particular to the temporalis and pterygoid components, with minimal displacement of the superficial components. This minimized the risk of visibly hollowing the buccal fullness.
CONCLUSION: Preoperative calculation of the CT-based volume of the BFP correlates positively with the intraoperative maximum reach of the flap for both length and width. Whereas the volume may be lower in some instances, the BFP would still have adequate reach to provide coverage for the lower and mid-clival region in most patients.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 2019.

PMID: 31876287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Post-traumatic enophthalmos secondary to orbital fat atrophy: a volumetric analysis.

sex, 11/15/2019 - 09:08

Post-traumatic enophthalmos secondary to orbital fat atrophy: a volumetric analysis.

Orbit. 2019 Nov 14;:1-6

Authors: Cohen LM, Habib LA, Yoon MK

Abstract
Purpose: To investigate via volumetric analysis whether orbital fat atrophy occurs in late post-traumatic enophthalmos.Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective cohort study identified patients with diagnoses of both orbital fracture and enophthalmos with a CT orbits >3 months after injury. Exclusion criteria were surgical repair, other orbital disease or surgery, adjacent sinus disease, and an abnormal contralateral orbit. Images were analyzed using OsiriX imaging software (v.9.0.2, Pixmeo, Switzerland). Total orbital volume and orbital fat volume for the fractured and normal contralateral orbits were measured via three-dimensional volume rendering assisted region-of-interest computation. Enophthalmos was measured radiographically. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare orbital fat and total orbital volumes between the fractured and normal contralateral orbits.Results: Thirteen patients met the inclusion criteria. The numbers of patients with each fracture pattern were floor (4), medial wall (4), floor/medial wall (3), zygomaticomaxillary complex (floor+lateral wall) (1), zygomaticomaxillary complex+medial (inferior/medial/lateral walls) (1). Mean time from injury to CT scan was 21.8 ± 16.3 months. Comparing the fractured and normal contralateral orbits, there was a statistically significant decrease in orbital fat volume (mean difference 0.9 ml (14.2%), p = .0002) and increase in total orbital volume (mean difference 2.0 ml (7.0%), p = .0001). One ml orbital volume change was responsible for 0.83 mm enophthalmos.Conclusions: In addition to an increase in total orbital volume, orbital fat loss occurs with late post-traumatic enophthalmos due to unrepaired fractures. This suggests correction of bony change alone may be insufficient in some cases, and the use of custom implants may compensate for fat atrophy.

PMID: 31726012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Imaging and histomorphometric evaluation of mandible and tibia of rats treated with bisphosphonates.

qui, 11/07/2019 - 17:02
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Imaging and histomorphometric evaluation of mandible and tibia of rats treated with bisphosphonates.

Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Nov 04;:

Authors: Martelli SJR, Damian MF, Schinestsck AR, Schuch LF, Cascaes AM, Vasconcelos ACU

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the mandible and tibia of rats treated with bisphosphonates (BPs) by imaging and histomorphometric analysis.
STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four rat specimens (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar strain) were distributed into 3 groups: (1) 12 rats treated with zoledronic acid; (2) 12 rats treated with clodronate; and (3) the control group, containing 10 rats that received saline. All bones were exposed to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The images were analyzed to determine bone density (BD), using the software OsiriX 7.0. Histological slides were prepared from the specimens and the proportion of bone volume (BV) was quantified using the software Adobe Photoshop CC.
RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in BD either between the drug groups or between mandible and tibia. BV between BPs and control group did not show a significant difference. However, comparing the two bones, the mandibles in the control group displayed higher BV than did the tibiae in the same group.
CONCLUSION: According to our results, we conclude that (1) BD was not altered by bone type or by type of BP administered, and (2) treatment with zoledronic acid or clodronate did not affect BV in the mandible or tibia of test groups.

PMID: 31686251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]