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Comparison of 18F-sodium fluoride uptake in the whole bone, pelvis, and femoral neck of multiple myeloma patients before and after high-dose therapy and conventional-dose chemotherapy.

dom, 04/05/2020 - 09:26
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Comparison of 18F-sodium fluoride uptake in the whole bone, pelvis, and femoral neck of multiple myeloma patients before and after high-dose therapy and conventional-dose chemotherapy.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2020 Apr 03;:

Authors: Zirakchian Zadeh M, Østergaard B, Raynor WY, Revheim ME, Seraj SM, Acosta-Montenegro O, Ayubcha C, Yellanki DP, Al-Zaghal A, Nielsen AL, Constantinescu CM, Gerke O, Werner TJ, Zhuang H, Abildgaard N, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Alavi A

Abstract
AIM: To compare the effects of high-dose therapy (HDT consisting of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation) and conventional-dose chemotherapy (non-HDT) on the uptake of 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF) in the whole bone, pelvis, and femoral neck of multiple myeloma (MM) patients.
METHOD: The data of 19 MM patients who received HDT (61.5 (SD 5.6) years) and 11 MM patients who received conventional-dose chemotherapy (70.9 (SD 7.2) years) were collected in a prospective study. NaF PET/CT imaging was performed at baseline, and 8 weeks and 2 weeks after treatment for the HDT group and the non-HDT group, respectively. A CT-based algorithm was applied to segment the bones, and the global mean SUV (GSUVmean) of the whole bone and pelvis was calculated (OsiriX MD v.9.0, Pixmeo SARL; Bernex, Switzerland). In addition, regions of interest for the whole, medial, and lateral femoral neck were delineated bilaterally. Whole bone and pelvis measurements were replicated by two observers.
RESULTS: The average GSUVmean in the whole bone and pelvis of the patients who underwent HDT significantly decreased from before to after treatment (- 16.27%, p = 0.02 and - 16.54%, p = 0.01, respectively). A significant decrease in the whole and lateral femoral neck was also observed bilaterally in the HDT group. No significant decrease in average GSUVmean was observed in the non-HDT group. A high level of inter-observer reliability was found in intra-class correlation (ICC for pre-treatment whole bone 0.983, post-treatment whole bone 0.989, pre-treatment whole pelvis 0.998, post-treatment whole pelvis 0.996).
CONCLUSION: NaF uptake significantly decreased after treatment in patients who received high-dose therapy. A high level of agreement was observed between two operators for whole bone and pelvis measurements.

PMID: 32246208 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Role of 18F-NaF-PET in assessing aortic valve calcification with age.

sex, 03/27/2020 - 17:19
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Role of 18F-NaF-PET in assessing aortic valve calcification with age.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2020;10(1):47-56

Authors: Rojulpote C, Borja AJ, Zhang V, Aly M, Koa B, Seraj SM, Raynor WY, Kothekar E, Kaghazchi F, Werner TJ, Gerke O, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Alavi A

Abstract
Aortic valve calcification is a slow and progressive pathological process that can manifest in various degrees from mild thickening of the valve known as aortic sclerosis to severe calcification that hinders the leaflet motion, known as aortic stenosis. The evolving concept of aortic calcification is thought to result from infiltration of macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Moreover, the incidence of aortic valve calcification increases with age, in particular over the age of 50. In this study, we aimed to assess 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) uptake by the aortic valve on PET/CT scans performed in two age groups; 25-35 and 50-75 years of age. We hypothesized that patients aged 50-75, comprising of both healthy and high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), would have higher uptake of 18F-NaF than patients aged 25-35 and further that in the former group those who were at high risk for CVD had also higher 18F-NaF uptake. The 25-35-year group comprised of 6 males and 6 females, mean age 30 ± 3.5 years, while the 50-75-year group included 18 males and 20 females, mean age 61 ± 6.2 years. All underwent PET/CT imaging 90 minutes following the injection of 2.2 MBq of 18F-NaF per kg body weight. Aortic valve analysis was performed on axial sections using standard guided computer software (OsiriX MD software, version 9.0.02). The average aortic valve SUVmean was calculated for each patient. Univariate regression models stratified by age group were employed to determine the association of SUVmean with age. In the 50-75-year group, explanatory multivariable regression modeling was applied using available demographic and baseline information. SUVmean was found to be higher in the 50-75 age group than in the 25-35 age group: 0.91 ± 0.25 and 0.86 ± 0.26, respectively. The association of SUVmean with age was much stronger in individuals aged 50-75 years (r = 0.64, P<0.001) than individuals aged 25-35 years (r = 0.20, P = 0.53). In addition, in the 50-75 age group the association was much stronger in subjects with a high risk of CVD than in individuals without: r = 0.68, P = 0.001 versus r = 0.48, P = 0.042. Furthermore, the SUVmean was found to be higher in the high-risk group aged 50-75 than in the low-risk healthy group aged 50-75: 0.98 ± 0.32 and 0.83 ± 0.13. Aortic valve 18F-NaF uptake was higher in patients belonging to the age group of 50-75 years and correlated positively with age and high risk of CVD. These data provide evidence for a potential role of 18F-NaF PET/CT in identifying calcific changes in the aortic valve and may help direct therapeutic intervention prior to the development of symptomatic valvular disease.

PMID: 32211218 [PubMed]

The Correlation Between Computed Tomography Volumetry and Prognosis of Advanced Gastric Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

qui, 02/27/2020 - 09:42
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The Correlation Between Computed Tomography Volumetry and Prognosis of Advanced Gastric Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Cancer Manag Res. 2020;12:759-768

Authors: Chen C, Dong H, Shou C, Shi X, Zhang Q, Liu X, Zhu K, Zhong B, Yu J

Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and utility of computer tomography (CT) volumetry in evaluating the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients.
Patients and Methods: One hundred and seventeen Patients with AGC who received NAC followed by R0 resection between January 2006 and December 2012 were included. Tumor volumes were quantified using OsiriX software. The volume reduction rate (VRR) was calculated as follows: VRR = [(pre-chemotherapy total volume) - (post-chemotherapy total volume)]/(pre-chemotherapy total volume) × 100%. The optimal cut-off VRR for differentiating favorable from unfavorable prognosis was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Overall survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and values were compared using the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was determined by the Cox proportional regression model.
Results: The optimal cut-off VRR was 31.95% according to ROC analysis, with a sensitivity of 70.4% and a specificity of 71.7%. Based on the cut-off VRR, patients were divided into the VRR-High (VRR ≥ 31.95%, n = 63) and VRR-Low (VRR < 31.95%, n = 54) groups. The VRR-Low group exhibited a worse prognosis than that of the VRR-High group (HR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.69-4.82, P < 0.001), with 3-year survival rates of 40.7% and 79.4%, and 5-year survival rates of 31.5% and 63.5%, respectively.
Conclusion: CT volumetry is a feasible and reliable method for assessing the tumor response to NAC in patients with AGC.

PMID: 32099471 [PubMed]

Establishing the inter-rater reliability of spinal cord damage manual measurement using magnetic resonance imaging.

qua, 02/19/2020 - 10:58
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Establishing the inter-rater reliability of spinal cord damage manual measurement using magnetic resonance imaging.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2019 Feb 18;5(1):20

Authors: Cummins DP, Connor JR, Heller KA, Hubert JS, Kates MJ, Wisniewski KR, Berliner JC, O'Dell DR, Elliott JM, Weber KA, Smith AC

Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.
OBJECTIVES: To establish the inter-rater reliability in the quantitative evaluation of spinal cord damage following cervical incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was used to perform manual measurements of the cranial and caudal boundaries of edema, edema length, midsagittal tissue bridge ratio, axial damage ratio, and edema volume in 10 participants with cervical incomplete SCI.
SETTING: Academic university setting.
METHODS: Structural MRIs of 10 participants with SCI were collected from Northwestern University's Neuromuscular Imaging and Research Lab. All manual measures were performed using OsiriX (Pixmeo Sarl, Geneva, Switzerland). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine inter-rater reliability across seven raters of varying experience.
RESULTS: High-to-excellent inter-rater reliability was found for all measures. ICC values for cranial/caudal levels of involvement, edema length, midsagittal tissue bridge ratio, axial damage ratio, and edema volume were 0.99, 0.98, 0.90, 0.84, and 0.93, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Manual MRI measures of spinal cord damage are reliable between raters. Researchers and clinicians may confidently utilize manual MRI measures to quantify cord damage. Future research to predict functional recovery following SCI and better inform clinical management is warranted.

PMID: 32066668 [PubMed - in process]

Role of FDG-PET/CT in Assessing the Correlation Between Blood Pressure and Myocardial Metabolic Uptake.

ter, 02/18/2020 - 19:55
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Role of FDG-PET/CT in Assessing the Correlation Between Blood Pressure and Myocardial Metabolic Uptake.

Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol. 2020;8(1):36-45

Authors: Rojulpote C, Mehdizadeh Seraj S, Zirakchian Zadeh M, Yadav D, Raynor WY, Kothekar E, Al-Zaghal A, Werner TJ, Gerke O, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Alavi A

Abstract
Objectives: We aimed to assess the association between blood pressure and LV myocardial uptake of FDG, hypothesizing that subjects with raised blood pressure would have higher FDG uptake.
Methods: We analyzed 86 healthy controls who underwent PET/CT imaging 180 minutes following FDG (4 MBq/Kg) administration. LV myocardial analysis was performed on axial sections using standard operator guided computer software (OsiriX MD). The average LV myocardial SUVmean (MSUVmean) was calculated for each subject. Subjects were assessed according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines for high blood pressure in adults. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was calculated for each patient. Regression models were employed for statistical analysis.
Results: The association of MSUVmean was more pronounced with DP (r=0.32, p=0.003) than SP (r=0.28, p=0.010); MABP was comparable (r=0.33, p=0.002). Correlations of MSUVmean with categorized BPs were: normal SP (r=0.27, p=0.010), elevated SP (r=0.28, p=0.009), stage 1 SP (r=0.27, p=0.010), stage 2 SP (r=0.28, p=0.008); normal DP (r=0.33, p=0.001), stage 1 DP (r=0.34, p=0.001), stage 2 DP (r=0.35, p=0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated DP (p=0.006), MABP (p=0.007), and SP (0.026).
Conclusion: LV myocardial FDG uptake was higher in subjects with elevated blood pressure and correlated positively with SBP and in particular DBP and MABP.

PMID: 32064281 [PubMed]

Quantitative three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of sinus tympani volume in temporal bones with petrous apex pneumatization.

sab, 02/15/2020 - 10:26
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Quantitative three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of sinus tympani volume in temporal bones with petrous apex pneumatization.

Auris Nasus Larynx. 2020 Feb 10;:

Authors: Bekci T, Hizli O, Ozturk M, Yildirim G

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sinus tympani volume and petrous apex pneumatization in this retrospective-archival temporal bone computed tomography study.
METHODS: We included 46 temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex from 26 patients and 52 temporal bones without petrous apex pneumatization from 26 other patients. Using OsiriX software for MacOS (version 3.8.1, Pixmeo), we measured the volumes from three-dimensional sinus tympani models and compared the sinus tympani volumes and depths between the temporal bones with and without pneumatized petrous apex.
RESULTS: Among 150 patients totally reviewed, 26 (17.3%) had petrous apex pneumatization. The median sinus tympani volume was 16.05 (5.6-59.7) mm3 in temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex and 8.7 (1.76-59.7) mm3in temporal bones without. The sinus tympani volume was significantly greater in temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex compared to those without (p < 0.001). Additionally, temporal bones with pneumatized petrous apex had a significantly deeper sinus tympani [median depth = 2.17 (0-3.04) mm] compared to the temporal bones without [median depth = 1.69 (0-3.73) mm] (p = 0.045). We found that petrous apex pneumatization was associated with deeper and larger sinus tympani.
CONCLUSION: Patients with pneumatized petrous apex had a greater sinus tympani volume associated with the increased risk of residual cholesteatoma.

PMID: 32057525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Is basilar invagination related with stenosis of the hypoglossal nerve canal?

sab, 02/08/2020 - 09:14
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Is basilar invagination related with stenosis of the hypoglossal nerve canal?

World Neurosurg. 2020 Feb 04;:

Authors: Vasconcelos BB, Nascimento JJC, Valença MM, Silva-Neto EJ, Diniz PRB, Araújo-Neto SA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between basilar invagination (BI) and stenosis in the hypoglossal canal (HC).
METHODS: A case-control study with magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the head from a local database was performed. The study used MRI of 31 participants with BI (type B) and 36 controls, both groups over 18 years of age and without sex distinction. The internal (ID) and external (ED) diameters of the HC were measured on the coronal plane using the Osirix®. We used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (with Lilliefors adjustment) to evaluate the normality of the variables, Levine test to verify the homogeneity of the variances, and Student's t-test to verify differences between groups. All analyzes were within the 95% confidence interval using the software SPSS (version 20).
RESULTS: Control group presented right and left ED values ​​of 4.7 ± 0.8 mm and 4.6 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, while the right and left ID showed 4.4 ± 0.9 mm and 4.3 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. The group with BI showed right and left ED values ​​of 3.3 ± 0.9 mm and 3.1 ± 0.9 mm, and the right and left ID had values of 2.8 ± 0.7 mm and 2.7 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. Both ED and ID were smaller in the group with BI (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Patients with BI of type B presented the narrowing of HC when compared to control participants.

PMID: 32032789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Clinical impact of skeletal muscle area in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors.

sex, 02/07/2020 - 09:09
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Clinical impact of skeletal muscle area in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb 05;:

Authors: Takada K, Yoneshima Y, Tanaka K, Okamoto I, Shimokawa M, Wakasu S, Takamori S, Toyokawa G, Oba T, Osoegawa A, Tagawa T, Oda Y, Nakanishi Y, Mori M

Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of skeletal muscle area (SMA) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors.
METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on data of 103 patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors. The SMA was measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebral (L3) on computed tomography images using OsiriX software (32-bit, version 5.8; OsiriX, Geneva, Switzerland). The L3 muscle index (cm2/m2) was defined as the SMA (cm2) at the L3 level divided by the height (m) squared.
RESULTS: L3 muscle index Low was an independent predictor of both progression-free (P = 0.0399) and overall survival (P = 0.0155). Moreover, the disease control rate was significantly lower in the L3 muscle index Low group (49.0% [25/51]) than in the L3 muscle index High group (73.1% [38/52]; P = 0.0117). However, there was no significant difference between the response rates of the L3 muscle index Low group (21.6% [11/51]) and L3 muscle index High group (32.7% [17/52]; P = 0.2031).
CONCLUSIONS: L3 muscle index Low is an independent predictor of worse outcomes in NSCLC patients treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitors.

PMID: 32025867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Determining the Accuracy of the Mandibular Canal Region in 3D Biomodels Fabricated from CBCT Scanned Data: A Cadaveric Study.

qua, 02/05/2020 - 17:54
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Determining the Accuracy of the Mandibular Canal Region in 3D Biomodels Fabricated from CBCT Scanned Data: A Cadaveric Study.

Curr Med Imaging Rev. 2019;15(7):645-653

Authors: Abd Fattah SYAS, Hariri F, Nambiar P, Abu Bakar Z, Abdul Rahman ZA

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To validate the accuracy of the mandibular canal region in 3D biomodel produced by using data obtained from Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) of cadaveric mandibles.
METHODS: Six hemi-mandible samples were scanned using the i-CAT CBCT system. The scanned data was transferred to the OsiriX software for measurement protocol and subsequently into Mimics software to fabricate customized cutting jigs and 3D biomodels based on rapid prototyping technology. The hemi-mandibles were segmented into 5 dentoalveolar blocks using the customized jigs. Digital calliper was used to measure six distances surrounding the mandibular canal on each section. The same distances were measured on the corresponding cross-sectional OsiriX images and the 3D biomodels of each dentoalveolar block.
RESULTS: Statistically no significant difference was found when measurements from OsiriX images and 3D biomodels were compared to the "gold standard" -direct digital calliper measurement of the cadaveric dentoalveolar blocks. Moreover, the mean value difference of the various measurements between the different study components was also minimal.
CONCLUSION: Various distances surrounding the mandibular canal from 3D biomodels produced from the CBCT scanned data was similar to that of direct digital calliper measurements of the cadaveric specimens.

PMID: 32008512 [PubMed - in process]

Sex estimation in the cranium and mandible: a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) study using anthropometric and geometric morphometry methods.

sab, 01/04/2020 - 10:33
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Sex estimation in the cranium and mandible: a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) study using anthropometric and geometric morphometry methods.

Int J Legal Med. 2020 Jan 02;:

Authors: Gillet C, Costa-Mendes L, Rérolle C, Telmon N, Maret D, Savall F

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the respective contribution of the skull and mandible to sex estimation in an entire cranium using metric and geometric morphometric methods and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) analysis.
MATERIALS: The study sample comprised 120 individuals aged 23 to 84 years and divided into three groups (whole sample and over or under 40 years of age).
METHODS: Forty-eight osteometric landmarks were positioned using Osirix®, 34 for the cranium and 14 for the mandible. The data were analyzed using univariate analyses and logistic regression using backward stepwise selection with cross-validation of the classification results. Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) was used, and Goodall's F test and Mahalanobis D2 matrices allowed an assessment of statistical significance.
RESULTS: The classification accuracy of cranium models ranged from 87% to 88.3%, and from 68% to 81.4% for the mandibular models. With geometric morphometry, accuracy was of 94-100% for the cranium and 84.2% for the mandible.
DISCUSSION: We conclude that the mandible had a higher accuracy rate for individuals over 40 years than individuals under 40 years of age, although the accuracy of geometric morphometry did not differ significantly between the age groups. The cranium, however, presented greater predictability for all the parameters assessed.

PMID: 31897666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Does 3D volumetric analysis predict the reach of endoscopically harvested buccal fat pad flap.

sex, 12/27/2019 - 09:23
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Does 3D volumetric analysis predict the reach of endoscopically harvested buccal fat pad flap.

Laryngoscope. 2019 Dec 26;:

Authors: Subramaniam S, Gomez M, Maza G, Prevedello DM, Carrau RL

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the volume of buccal fat, ascertained by computed tomography (CT) scanning, would correspond to surface area and reach (length and width) of the flap intraoperatively to aid in the reconstruction of selected skull base defects.
METHODS: Cadaveric study of five specimens, 10 sides. Methods CT imaging and evaluation using the Osirix 9 software (Pixmeo; Bernex, Switzerland). of cadaveric heads to calculate the volume of the buccal fat bilaterally. The flap was then harvested endoscopically. Measurements were taken. Two heads were also dissected via a transfacial approach.
RESULTS: The volume of the buccal fat pad (BFP) as well as the maximum length and width of the endoscopically harvested flap were documented. There was a positive correlation shown between the calculated volume of the BFP based on CT imaging and the dissected length and width of the flap (Pearson correlation, r = 0.83 and r = 0.80, respectively). The transfacial dissection demonstrated the lobes of the BFP well, showing that most of the endoscopic mobilization of the BFP was limited to the posterior lobe, in particular to the temporalis and pterygoid components, with minimal displacement of the superficial components. This minimized the risk of visibly hollowing the buccal fullness.
CONCLUSION: Preoperative calculation of the CT-based volume of the BFP correlates positively with the intraoperative maximum reach of the flap for both length and width. Whereas the volume may be lower in some instances, the BFP would still have adequate reach to provide coverage for the lower and mid-clival region in most patients.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 2019.

PMID: 31876287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]